by Leonardo Maggiore, consultant and training manager for HoReCa Diba 70
Coffee is said to be the most consumed beverage after water and the second most important commodity in the world after oil. Its market is even regulated by the two largest world exchanges: the one in New York, where Arabica is listed, and the one in London, where Robusta is traded.
In the world, there are approximately fifty producing countries that generate approximately 170 million bags of 60 kg per year. Half of this production is concentrated in the hands of only two countries, Brazil (first producer in the world with about 60 million bags) and Vietnam (first producer of Robusta with 30 million bags per year). In addition to the two countries just mentioned, the American continent is worth mentioning in terms of quality and quantity: Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico.
In Africa, Ethiopia obviously stands out, the country of origin of coffee where an excellent washed and natural Arabica is produced. Then Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and the Ivory Coast, probably best known for the production of Robusta. On the Asian continent, India and Indonesia produce both Robusta and Arabica of good quality.
Of the countries just mentioned Brazil mainly produces natural Arabica although in recent years it has developed an increasingly significant production of Robusta (variety Conillon). Santos is certainly the most famous coffee, from the Brazilian port of the same name which is one of the most important in terms of exporting coffee and raw materials in general.
where Colombia today the third largest producer in the world and first when it comes to washed Arabica coffee. Among the most widespread botanical varieties we mention Typica, Bourbon, Caturra, Colombia, Maragogype, Tekisik and Castillo. Colombian coffee is known throughout the world for its aromatic richness and good body that shows itself with sweet aromatic notes ranging from hazelnut to chocolate, from floral to fruity with easily recognizable profiles for each production area. Among these we quickly remember: Cauca, Santander, Narino, Tolima, Hulia, Antioquia.
Development of Vietnam as a completely new coffee producer. certainly, among the youngest realities, the one with the dumbest market for the speed with which it has established itself in the coffee world. Recently we have seen a significant improvement but there the quality and price of Vietnamese coffee are still very low today. The production regions themselves are poorly defined due to low demand for traceability of the coffee collected here.
IN Honduras there are all the ideal environmental conditions for coffee cultivation: soil, climate, altitude, well-educated farmers. In recent decades, the country’s historical infrastructural deficiencies have been partly overcome thanks to above all valuable contribution from IHCAFE (Honduran Institute of Caf). Today, Honduras has become fifth/sixth producer in the world (step disputed with Ethiopia) and the second for washed Arabica coffee, among which I would like to mention: Caturra, Catuai, Pacas and Typica. The cafes are classified by altitude into Strictly High Grown (SHG) above 1,200 meters and into High Grown (HG) above 1,000 meters.
For Guatemala, today the seventh largest producer in the world, coffee is one of the most important products. It actually accounts for 21% of total exports. Production is mainly concentrated in the volcanic regions of Antigua, Atilan, San Marcos and Fraijanes, as well as in the mountainous area of Huehuetenango. The most used botanical species are Bourbon, Caturra and Catuai. The classification is based primarily on height.
LIndonesia the fourth largest producer of coffee in the world and the second of Robusta after Vietnam. Arabica production is about 10% of the total. Indonesian coffee, grown on different islands, has very specific characteristics and strong diversity. Among these the island Java known for years for a processing method that has always been discussed for its real value, its effective quality but above all for lack of ethics with which the coffee is treated. We are of course referring to the famous ones Kopi Luwak, coffee obtained from the digestion of the palm owl.
INIndiafifth producer in the world, both Arabica and Robusta are grown in the regions of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Eastern and Northern regions. In addition to the classic methods of processing coffee are also used another very special method called Monsoon. This quality, now considered gourmet, is obtained by leaving the coffee beans exposed to the heat and humidity of the monsoon winds in warehouses without walls. In this way, the grain acquires a yellow color and a characteristic spicy note.
The Mexico I fought against the producing country in the world. 90% of Mexican Arabica production and only 10% Robusta. The most common varieties are Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Mundo Nuovo, Maragogype, Catimor and Catuai. These coffees are mainly processed using the washing method and the main production areas are Puebla, Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca.
LUganda the second largest coffee producer in Africa after Ethiopia and the first for Robusta, with a total production strongly growing especially recently. Most Robusta coffee is processed using the natural method. Ugandan coffee stands out for its herbaceous notes, spicy flavor and full aroma. A popular variety is Arabica Uganda Bugisu: grown on volcanic soil and harvested entirely by hand, this Arabica variety has an intense and full flavor with hints of black currant and cherry.
Last but certainly not least, it could not be missingEthiopia, what is unanimously considered the homeland of Arabica. Ethiopia the first producer in Africa and the fifth / sixth in the world. The biodiversity and variety of this country is unique in the world, Andthere are actually about 1,000 native varietiescall Heirloom distributed in the coffee production areas: Sidamoin southern Ethiopia, where one of the most famous coffees in the area with a marked acidity is produced; Greyhoundswhere one of the oldest varieties, of very high aromatic quality, is grown; Limu and Jimmahan area in the west of the country where the coffee processed by the washed method is called Limu, the natural Djimmah.
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Published July 28, 2022