Freedom’s opinion

The big crisisis economic that financialwhich Italy has entered into, like many countries in Europe, has for the moment had as a consequence signs of a slowdown in global growth. But in the near future maintained by sanctions at Russia and related energy constraints they predict much more troubling situations.

To address the context, actions for Keynesian flavor, questions the economic models that have prevailed so far. The Pnrr it was one of the most authentic interpretations of it but it is only the afterword of many others public interventionsdo you want to support banksdo you want businessdo you want to support consumption from specific goodsyou want to revive in household income and consumption in general. It seems like a turning point for the delegitimization of Keynesian modelwhich has characterized Italian economic policy from the sixties further and above all to the very fierce debate that was opposed Federico Caffèfaithful interpreter of John Maynard Keynes in Italy, to economists neoliberals.

Keynes, lived between 1883 and that 1946, author of the work General theory of employment, interest and money, confirmed that the typical state of the economic system is not equilibrium, but underemployment: available resources and demand is lower than supply. This depends, as income, consumption grows less than proportionally. Therefore, in order to maintain a certain volume of occupation, it is necessary that they be carried out investments enough to absorb difference between total production and consumption. For this Keynes considered it necessary togovernment intervention as through public spending, can lead to an increase in the level of employment. Consequently, an increase in household income and thus consumption. Businesses, facing the growth of request, would increase production and thus create new jobs and trigger a recovery mechanism. The problem of underemployment will be accentuated even more by new work technologywhich will make the needs of human work in many areas.

In accordance with the theories of the English researcher, it must therefore be the task of the state to intervene in the economy to compensate for problem which is generated by the market regarding unemploymentensure the collective well-being as much as possible and mitigate the effects of recession and off Depression economic. However, Keynes’ goal was not to reform capitalist system in favor of a total programming and planning model typical of Soviet collectivism. Instead, he wanted to promote the transition to a kind of “liberal socialism”, a socialism that would preserve the democratic nature and individual freedoms – including economic – of Western political systems.

In all political programs these days the theme of work appears among the priorities, while for Keynes and for Caffè it unemployment was it social evil par excellence, which both saw in work the highest expression of human dignity and that “full employment“Would constitute the basic categorical imperative for each Government aware of their duties. For Caffè, in particular, ie benefits of a full employment situation should not be considered only on production plan but also and above all on human dignity. To this end, the economist asserted the role of the state as “occupier of last resort”, where it must take responsibility to guarantee, to all who have the capacity, rights obligation of work – in the form of work of citizenship – considering that a job can be useful to society even if it does not bring profit.

Take for example hydraulic forest workers present in Calabria and in Sicily. In fact, they are more than their real needs and their work cannot be quantified in profit, but apart from taking a potential target away from crime, the initiative has given many fathers the pride of having a job. The opposition of Mario DraghiCaffè’s favorite student, al Basic income set without parameters referring to the age of the beneficiaries, perhaps it derives from the idea of ​​his Master and is connected with the word dignity.

where full employment for these great economists it represents above all an ethical and moral duty, as well as an economic one. Better a citizenship work linked to needs in the areatrainingof healthcareof urban improvement and the protection of the landscape, that a citizen’s income granted to a young lad thus prematurely encouraged a situation of convenience, to the detriment of the dignity many times recalled not only by Keynes and Caffè.

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